Ulrich, K.T. 8 No. 128-133, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.08.040. 67 No. Support structure is directly linked to the choice of build direction during manufacturing. The recommended approach for this step is seen in Table II. 213 No. Wang, D., Yang, Y., Liu, R., Xiao, D. and Sun, J. 159-179, available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1474034612000092 (accessed 4 August 2017). This paper aims to review recent research in design for additive manufacturing (DfAM), including additive manufacturing (AM) terminology, trends, methods, classification of DfAM methods and software. 139 No. The added support structure adds extra material in the manufacturing which adds manufacturing time, waste material and post-processing time for the removal of the structure. ASTM (2013), “ASTM standard f2792, standard terminology for additive manufacturing technologies”. and Evans, K.E. The optimized geometries were produced using LBM and the manufactured design was then experimentally tested. 3Dsim (2017), “Additive manufacturing simulation”, available at: http://3dsim.com/ (accessed 28 June 2017). All parameters are strongly dependent on each other and changing one will affect the other parameters as well (Gibson et al., 2010). 90 Nos 9/12, pp. In review, submitted to the 15th Conference on Rapid Design, Prototyping & Manufacturing (RDPM2017), 27-28 April 2017, Newcastle, United Kingdom. 65-78, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2017.05.003, Khairallah, S.A. and Anderson, A. The method uses the design rules of maximum part dimension (to fit into the build chamber), minimum wall thickness, gap dimensions, cylinder diameter and diameter of holes. It is concluded that direct use of TO is not possible today, and instead four different alternatives are mentioned and the pros and cons are discussed: Perform TO but remodel it in CAD software. The design process is an interpretation of existing methods, which compared to the existing processes aims to include all steps necessary from choosing AM as manufacturing method of a component to verification of AM capability and preparation for the manufacturing process. Finally, the review proposes a new type of design process for additive manufacturing which aims to achieve a more automated design process for AM. and Voth, T.E. What the multi-objective optimization problem formulation should look like still needs to be determined. (2015), “Study on unsupported overhangs of AlSi10Mg parts processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)”, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. Ullman, D.G. Depending on who you ask or what paper you read, the definition of DfAM varies. Most AM manufacturing companies use standard settings for different materials and machines, and it is therefore difficult for the design engineer to change the settings. Design for Additive Manufacturing is a complete guide to design tools for the manufacturing requirements of AM and how they can enable the optimization of process and product parameters for the reduction of manufacturing costs and effort. Finally, in Section 5, Conclusion and further work, the paper is summarized and concludes with suggestions for future research in the field of DfAM. (2017) and Salonitis et al. To do this, design rules are used which aim to describe what could be manufactured using AM and what limitations there are. RMIT through its Advanced Manufacturing Precinct (AMP) and the Centre for Additive Manufacturing is involved in a number of bioengineering research projects investigating the application of 3D printing technology. Aeronautics and metal AM have been the motivators for this study, but the proposed process is generic and is also applicable in other areas. 408-413, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.05.016, Lindemann, C., Reiher, T., Jahnke, U. and Koch, R. (2015), “Towards a sustainable and economic selection of part candidates for additive manufacturing”, Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. Adam and Zimmer (Adam and Zimmer, 2013) have developed design rules for SLM, SLS and FDM based on standard elements. (Ed), Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. Exactly which steps should be incorporated into the process design step could be argued, but in this review all steps from design to manufacturing are discussed. should represent the different components in the system. 36, pp. 69, pp. 49 Nos 7/8, pp. 2689-2701. The method is divided into nine steps as follows: Determine candidates in the assembly that could be eliminated. 51-60. pp. The research includes formulation of design guidelines by studying the relationship between input part geometry and AM process parameters. 142, pp. Automatic coupling of different AM specific simulation models and tools such as support structure creation and evaluation, manufacturing setting, manufacturing simulation, cost simulations, etc. With a focus on the function-driven design strategy, the incentive is to take full advantage of the freeform and complex shape possibilities offered by AM. However, it is stated that no software is known that could turn a TO shape into a full parametric CAD model. Additive manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the production of aerospace and defense components. Lattice structures could be divided into three categories: disordered, periodic and pseudo-periodic. Das et al. All of the software mentioned in step 7 gives an indication of the print time based on the geometry set-up and the AM preparation settings. Hällgren et al. In the area of cost simulations for additive manufacturing, Costabile et al. Energy-related settings include the power of the energy source, spot size, pulse duration and pulse frequency. (2012), “Support fast generation algorithm based on discrete-marking in rapid prototyping”, in Luo, J. (2019), "Design for additive manufacturing – a review of available design methods and software", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. In this review, three categories are proposed for dividing the DfAM research, namely, system, part and process design. Ranjan, R., Samant, R. and Anand, S. (2017), “Integration of design for manufacturing methods with topology optimization in additive manufacturing”, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates, Answers to the most commonly asked questions here, Linkopings Universitet Tekniska Hogskolan. 315, pp. 116 No. You are currently offline. Bo, Q., Lichao, Z., Yusheng, S. and Guocheng, L. (2012), “Support fast generation algorithm based on Discrete-Marking in rapid prototyping”, in Luo, J. Several generic design methods for AM exist and are extensive to a greater or lesser extent. Challenges in the creation of a support structure include identifying areas that need support, minimizing volume of support, giving the support sufficient mechanical properties (structural strength and heat dissipation), and providing support that is easy to remove. There are no general guidelines for determining what type of setting to use. 53 No. (2014) propose a three-step methodology which starts with identifying build orientation, followed by a TO, and ending with optimization of manufacturing settings. Two things that are unique to CAE analyses for AM parts are the possibility to create more complex structures such as grid structures and the anisotropic material behaviour which make it more complex to simulate compared to isotropic materials. 50, pp. When relevant literature was sorted out, the focus was to keep research linked to the area of structural components, metal powder bed AM technologies, aeronautic applications, design automation and optimization. Combine TO, design rules and standard CAD features. The journal aims to acknowledge the innovative nature of additive manufacturing and its broad applications to outline the current and future developments in the field.. The existing design for AM methods are mainly surrogate model based. It has gone through tremendous improvements over the past few decades and has matured from simple prototyping to actual manufacturing and tooling. In order to understand what DfAMy is and how it differs from DfAM, it helps to begin with the acronym that started it all: DfM. The incentives are manufacturing driven design strategy and function driven design strategy. Full presentation of the method used could be found in the paper. Research that implements the ideas of parts of the proposed framework has been found, but nothing that covers the entire process and all the disciplines. and Chemical Engineering Dept., University of TX, Austin, p. 2699, available at: https://login.e.bibl.liu.se/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=edsbl&AN=CN603208843&lang=sv&site=eds-live&scope=site. When identifying the terms to use during the review, some observations were made by trying different search terms and strings in Google scholar. Lindemann et al. 296-304, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.06.013. Some studies with similar ideas or implementation have been performed by others. 3, pp. 985-995. 20-28, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirpj.2013.10.001, Adam, G.A.O. (2012), “Micro scale 3D FEM simulation on thermal evolution within the porous structure in selective laser sintering”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. Several attempts at classifying research in the area of DfAM exist (Yang and Zhao, 2015; Laverne et al., 2014; Kumke et al., 2016; Thompson et al., 2016; Rosen, 2014; Guessasma et al., 2015, and Leutenecker-Twelsiek et al., 2016), none of which have focused on the design process itself, and therefore a new process is proposed in this paper. (2016) do not present a design process but discuss how TO could be combined with experience and design rules during the design process. The purpose of the following paragraphs is to give an overview of existing methodologies before a compilation of the existing methodologies in the form of a detailed method covering the whole design process is presented in Figure 6. 21 No. Automated methods for choosing the best build direction to minimize the amount of support structure are presented in (Strano et al., 2013a, 2013b) and (Zwier and Wits, 2016). 1, pp. Our research . Copyright © 2019, Anton Wiberg, Johan Persson and Johan Ölvander. An overview of the categories of publications can be seen in Figure 2. 2780-2791, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.10.190, Ammer, R., Markl, M., Ljungblad, U., Körner, C. and Rüde, U. Adam and Zimmer (2015) have also continued their work with a focus on different building directions and unsupported overhangs. 2058-2065, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.05.010. 738002. For each step in the proposed method, existing methods and software are coupled. Standard elements are geometric shapes described in three different ways: non-curved, simple curved and double curved. Journal of Micro and Nano-Manufacturing Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Diagnostics and Prognostics of Engineering Systems Thinking outside the box when setting designing for AM on a system level is something that is highlighted by Emmelmann et al. Furthermore, recommendations are given for which types of tools and methods are best suited at the different stages of the design process. 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