convergent validity journal

Those whose parents completed the withdrawal forms were asked to put the blank questionnaire and the withdrawal form into the envelope and stay quietly in the classroom. Children and adolescents account for a third of the population [27] and almost all (97%) of 15-24-year-old adolescents and young adults are able to read and write [28]. Number of factors of the DASS-21-V among girls and boys in a sample of 1,616 Vietnamese high school students. Crossref. 16(1) 2016 39. For the Anxiety factor, six item loadings were significant, except for item 9 (panic and make fool of self); ranging from 0.081 to 0.53. Letters of approval were sought from the Heads of all schools and centres. METHODS . The survey was administered during a normal 45-minute-class session. %PDF-1.6 %���� The results are robust with a systematically recruited, large sample, participants representing students from three main types of high schools and institutions in Vietnam, a high response rate and a low level of incomplete data. Further research is warrant to explore these results. Ethics approval for the conduct of the study was given by the Institutional Review Board of the Hanoi School of Public Health (Application number 013-148/DD-YTCC) and the Human Research Ethics Committee of Monash University (project number CF13/1762-2013000897). The author also found that this 4-factor-model provided the best fit to their data compared to other models [15]. Correlation coefficients between four factor scores of the depression, anxiety and stress scale Vietnamese validated version and ten domain scores of the Vietnamese validated adolescent version of the Duke Health Profile. The ADPH-V has been shown to have high internal consistency, acceptable reproducibility and confirmed construct validity [32]. Similar to previous research, we have found that the factor structure of the DASS-21 among adolescents is different to that among adults [15,18,19,21,22,34]. Implications of using measures with less-than-ideal convergent validity for the interpretability of research results are examined. Socio-demographic characteristics of the analysis sample are presented in Table 1. In the DASS-21 [5] the respondent is asked to think about their experiences in the past seven days and to judge how each statement applied to them. Details of the factor loadings for the 4F-model 7, which provided the best fit, are presented in Fig 1. These items were loaded primarily on the common General Distress factor. To assess the internal consistency, latent structure and convergent validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) among adolescents in Vietnam. Based on the observation from the 3F-model 1, where factor loadings were high, but there were very strong correlations between the three factors, we decided to examine a four-factor solution (4F-model 7) which had also been tested in Szábo’s study [15]. Yamato, TP, Maher, C, Koes, B & Moseley, A 2017, ' The PEDro scale had acceptably high convergent validity, construct validity, and interrater reliability in evaluating methodological quality of pharmaceutical trials ', Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α: 0.761 to 0.906). for smoking in adolescence, but evidence of predictive validity is required. There are some limitations in this study, which should be considered in interpreting the results. The General Distress, Depression, Anxiety and Stress factors correlated strongest with the general health, anxiety, depression and mental health domains of the ADHP-V. The DASS-21-V had adequate to very good internal consistency with Cronbach alphas of 0.906 for the overall scale, 0.835 for the Depression subscale, 0.737 for the Anxiety subscale and 0.761 for the Stress subscale. Confirmatory factor analyses using the best-fit model (4F-model 7) in which factor loadings and intercepts were not constrained and grouping according to sex was performed showed that factor loadings and intercepts were automatically set to be equal across groups for all four factors. The use of the DASS-21 among adolescents in Vietnam has been limited to one study [23]; to date there has been no research examining its factor structure and convergent validity among adolescents. In brief, the study was conducted during October, 2013—January, 2014 in Hanoi, Vietnam. 24-31. Data from 307 caregivers of children in an early intervention program were used. These correlations were used to assess the convergent validity of the DASS-21-V among this sample. This study provides further psychometrics on the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire (SLIQ), a short, easy-to-use instrument which measures all these lifestyle characteristics as a single construct. 176-181. Eighty six percent of the Vietnamese population belongs to the Kinh ethnic group [26]. Socioeconomic status was determined using the World Bank’s assessment of the acquisition of 12 household items [29]. A meta-analysis of the convergent validity of self-control measures. We express our sincere gratitude to funders of the project. There are 21 items in this scale with four response options: 0 “Did not apply to me at all–Never”, 1 “Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time–Sometimes”, 2 “Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time–Often” to 3 “Applied to me very much, or most of the time–Almost always”. There are seven items in each of the subscales; the score of which ranges from 0 to 21 [5]. Out of those who did not participate, 120 were absent on the survey day; seven students and two parents refused participation. h�bbd```b``��@$S �d{fˀeO�I#0yL���,&`��`Iɨ"��I��w��{��}�����v10҄���_�#@� �E For all other items, the loadings were very small and even negative (item 8 –using a lot of nervous energy). A difference of more than 10 between BICs of two models is considered to show very strong evidence to favour the model with the smaller BIC [37]. The reliability and validity of both the DASS and the DASS-21 have been replicated among clinical [7,8], as well as non-clinical adult samples [6,9–11]. On the bottom part of the figure (Observation) w… ��]�?�K������/�o����L��G�q5� {��#/�rP�. However, the factor structure of the DASS-21 was not examined in this study. The use of subscale scores of Depression and Anxiety among them is also acceptable. h��YmO�8�+�����%v� The factor loading of item 17 on the General Distress factor in this model was very low (4.2 x 10−5); this loading was then removed in the next model (3F-model 5). Convergent validity involves measuring a construct with independent measurement techniques and demonstrating a high correlation among the measures. Our findings that the four-factor model (4F model 7) was more superior than the one factor model (1F model 9) provide important evidence that among these Vietnamese adolescents, the DASS-21 showed not only a common non-specific general distress factor, but also specific, distinguishable components to each of the subscales of Depression, Anxiety and Stress. Faculty of Social Sciences, Behaviours and Health Education, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam, Affiliation: It might have been that the shared component among these three factors may not be large enough to represent the variances among them and to be retrieved as a second-order factor. The Stress factor has the least number of significant items of only two (item 11 –agitated and item 12 –difficult to relax) with factor loadings of 0.38 and 0.36, respectively. 3, pp. We have been able to establish configurational invariance, providing supporting evidence of equal number of latent factors of the DASS-21-V between girls and boys in this sample. 2017 Jul 19;12(7):e0180557. Analyses of data among adults using this measure yield consistent results about its psychometric properties [4–7]. The Body Esteem Scale: A Convergent and Discriminant Validity Study. Journal of Personality Assessment: Vol. Analyses of convergent validity included partial Pearson correlations between scores obtained on the four CogState tests and the four traditional neuropsychological tests selected a priori as conceptual matches, controlled for any demographic or health characteristics that were different between the control and patient groups. endstream endobj 744 0 obj <>/Metadata 80 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[763 0 R]>>/Pages 739 0 R/StructTreeRoot 120 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 745 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 746 0 obj <>stream To assess factor invariance, principal component factor analyses were run separately for girls and boys, and the numbers of principal factors compared between two groups. e for the convergent validity between corresponding subscales of the Initial and Short Screener instruments. Item loadings of those belonging to the DASS-21-A were not as good, especially for item 2 (dryness of the mouth) and item 9 (panic and make fool of self). It was only stated as “I felt that I was sensitive” and failed to convey the meaning of being “easily moved to anger” or “highly sensitive in temper or disposition” (Oxford dictionary). However, its ability in detecting stress among these adolescents may be limited. The inclusion of this factor was to examine whether Depression, Anxiety and Stress factors were in fact showing a common non-specific general distress while there were specific characteristics to them, which may not be captured by the common factor only. A total of 1,616/ 1,745 (92.6%) students returned a completed questionnaire. 1, pp. For full functionality of this site, please enable JavaScript. The Duke Health Profile (DHP) is a 17-item measure for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) [30]. The Vietnamese translation of item 1 (‘hard to wind down’) was not able to capture the original English meaning of the item, but instead, was read as “hard to control oneself”. Sample . None of the schools and centres invited refused to participate. The funders, however, did not have any role in study design, data collection, data analyses, interpretation of the results and decision to submit the paper for publication. Differences in the participants’ age between our sample (15–18) and the other samples (11–18) may explain these results. Based on modification indices, we allowed item 17 (“not worth much as a person”) to load on to the lack of positive affect factor (3F-model 4). Minh Thi Hong Le, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180557, Editor: Ali Montazeri, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN, Received: October 2, 2016; Accepted: June 16, 2017; Published: July 19, 2017. Models with smaller BIC are also favoured than models with larger BIC [37]. The Jean Hailes Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Affiliation: ... Construct Validity and Clinical Applications, Journal of Personality Assessment, 10.1080/00223891.2015.1079531, 97, 6, (572-590), (2015). A four-factor model showed the best fit to the data. Convergent validity of two motor skill tests used to assess school-age children. Assessing the factor structure of the DASS-21 among Malaysian adolescents aged 13–14 years, Hashim et al [21] found similar results to Patrick et al’s Australian study [17] which supported a one-Negative-Affect-factor solution. Background: Different scales are being used to measure frailty. The schools and centres were not randomly selected. However, when we applied this model in our sample (3F-model 8) the model estimation procedure failed to converge. The original English version [5] and its Vietnamese validated version [22] are described in S1 File. Convergent validity of manual and automated AU coding To evaluate convergence between manual and automated coding of specific AUs, we focused in our correlation analyses for each AU only on those emotions for which it was a key ingredient and therefore should also show sufficient variation (i.e., correlations with grey background in Table 2 ). A total of 1,606/ 1,745 (92.6%) students returned the questionnaire. Thach Duc Tran, OBJECTIVE: This prospective study examined the convergent validity and responsiveness of the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions Health Questionnaire (EQ-5D) utility weights in stroke survivors at the subacute stage. endstream endobj startxref The lowest correlations were with the disability domain (which indicated occurrence of any sickness or injury or health problem to the adolescents). An Alternative Procedure for Assessing Convergent and Discriminant Validity @article{Lehmann1988AnAP, title={An Alternative Procedure for Assessing Convergent and Discriminant Validity}, author={D. Lehmann}, journal={Applied Psychological Measurement}, year={1988}, volume={12}, pages={411 - 423} } �g��� ��0� O�?�@���A�.� ��Q�� � �L� Adolescents in our study were older and their development may thus have been different from those of the other samples. Keywords: decisional balance, hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis multi-trait multi-method ap-proach (HCFA MTMM), convergent validity, discriminant validity Convergent validity is agreement between measures of the same construct assessed by different methods. Correlations between scores of the four factors (General Distress, Depression, Anxiety and Stress) retrieved from the 4F-model 7 and ten domain scores of the ADHP-V are presented in Table 6. S1 File. However, the internal consistency reliability of the scale was acceptable to high, with a Cronbach Alpha of 0.72 for the Depression, 0.77 for the Anxiety, 0.70 for the Stress subscale and 0.88 for the overall scale. In this model, in addition to the Depression, Anxiety and Stress factors, a common General Distress (GD) factor, on which all items were allowed to load, was added. 761 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<6418C69F12B030449A3F1AED22A4231D><42AD8E2B488EE741811FBA62382D5A63>]/Index[743 36]/Info 742 0 R/Length 97/Prev 648981/Root 744 0 R/Size 779/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Convergent validity, along with discriminant validity, is a subtype of construct validity. Rory Wolfe, These caregivers completed the BCFQoL scale and external validity measures of family outcomes, psychological distress, and life situation. There has been evidence that an instrument validated in one setting may not be valid when applied in another due to differences in language expression, cultural and social characteristics, development, values and beliefs [20]. The same three-factor structure has been seen when the measure is used among diverse cultural and ethnic groups [12,13]. To establish convergent validity, you need to show that measures that should be related are in reality related. Their characteristics may have been very much different from those of the adolescents in this study. The THI and TQ have been demonstrated to have high convergent validity and are both suitable for tinnitus outcome studies involving the quantification of self – perceived tinnitus handicap. Participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, including age, sex, ethnicity, residential area and school type were assessed using study-specific questions. Despite large chi-square statistics and a significant p-value due to large sample size, the results for this model can be considered to show an adequate fit to the data [35]. In Vietnam, the DASS-21 has been validated among women during the perinatal period [22]. x�Y����0��Z�� -Q"�4)��d���(��� ��Q These differences may also be accounted for by the different economic and social characteristics between Vietnam and the other two countries, resulting in different levels of emotional awareness and recognition among the adolescents. Complete responses for the DASS-21-V were available for 1,387 students (85.8%) and the analysis was restricted to these individuals. Revision of items or even substitution of new items specific to these constructs among adolescents should be considered in such research. Citation: Le MTH, Tran TD, Holton S, Nguyen HT, Wolfe R, Fisher J (2017) Reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the DASS-21 in a sample of Vietnamese adolescents. A four-factor model, in which there was a second-order factor linking all the three Depression, Anxiety and Stress factors but with no direct item loading on this factor and no correlation between Depression, Anxiety and Stress factors (4F-model 10) was also tested. Factor loadings of the DASS-21-V among a sample of adolescents in Vietnam (errors for all items were removed for simplicity of the figure). The results demonstrate that the DASS-21-V is reliable and shows acceptable convergent validity among these adolescents. The very strong correlation between the lack of positive affect and general distress factors in 3F-model 4 shows evidence that these two factors may not be distinguishable. Items loadings for the other items (item 4, 7, 15, 19 & 20) were low to moderate (0.19–0.53), but significant, suggesting that symptoms of physiological arousal may be indicators of anxiety among Vietnamese adolescents. Summary statistics for the DASS-21-V among 1,387 high school students in Vietnam. Parental opt-out consent, in which parents were asked to complete a withdrawal form if they did not wish their child to participate, was sought for students less than 18 years of age. The results again show an unsatisfactory fit (Table 4). Further research to identify other items which are more suitable and specific to anxiety among Vietnamese adolescents may be helpful. In this study, the factor structure and evidence about the convergent validity of the DASS-21 Vietnamese validated version among a large sample of Vietnamese adolescents is presented for the first time. This study examined (1) the convergent validity of two ... (2011). Tran et al [22] administered the DASS-21-V among a sample of rural Vietnamese women during the perinatal period and concluded that the data supported a one-”Emotional-State”-factor model. Convergent validity, a parameter often used in sociology, psychology, and other behavioral sciences, refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related. Overall, the results from this study provide evidence that the DASS-21-V is suitable for use as a screening tool for symptoms of common mental health problems, especially Depression and Anxiety among adolescents in Vietnam. 743 0 obj <> endobj Models with smaller AIC are said to have better fit than models with higher AIC [15]. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess the latent structure of the DASS-21. There were strong correlations between the three factors (standardised correlation coefficients between the DASS-21-D and DASS-21-A was 0.86; between the DASS-21-D and DASS-21-S 0.89 and between the DASS-21-A and DASS-21-S 0.93), suggesting indistinguishability of these factors. The aim of this paper was to examine the internal consistency, latent structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21 Vietnamese validated version (DASS-21-V) [22] among Vietnamese adolescents. 50, No. The convergent validity of the structural diagnosis has been supported in studies that show that measures of the structural diagnosis from the structural interview are positively correlated with related constructs such as DSM personality disorders diagnoses, personality pathology, and use of primitive defence mechanisms, as assessed by a variety of methods, such as structured interviews, batteries of … This provides evidence that among these Vietnamese adolescents, symptoms of depression, which in this case, were characterised by items showing a lack of positive affect and loss of interest or pleasure, may be similar to those among adults and the use of the DASS-21 may be able to detect these. The internal consistency of the scale was further confirmed with Cronbach Alpha’s of 0.81, 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, for the three subscales [23]. FIGURE 1 . We thank Ms Hau Nguyen, all staff and students at the Jean Hailes Research Unit for their contribution to the design of the project. This model did not provide a satisfactory fit (Table 4). Discriminant validity is exactly the opposite; ... Journal of Marketing Research, v. 10, p. 184-190, 1973. However, we were not able to conclude whether each item were similarly understood by girls and boys. Because results produced from the two models were exactly the same, it was not possible to assess whether there was metric invariance. Symptoms of ‘dryness of the mouth’ or ‘feeling panic” and ‘making a fool of oneself’, however, may not represent symptoms of anxiety among this sample. Results Cronbach’s alpha values for both instruments’ total scale scores were greater than .7. One of the commonly-used scales for detection of mental health problems is the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale [4]. The DASS-21 has also been shown to have strong concurrent validity with other measures of depression, anxiety and stress including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Trait [14]. sychometric properties and construct validity of the Beach Center FQoL (BCFQoL) scale in Singapore. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. It has been shown to be reliable and valid with a three-factor structure [7,8]. Modification indices were examined and we allowed for cross-loadings of items 9 and 13 on the DASS-21-S on the basis of substantial improvement of model fit for limited additional model complexity (3F-model 2). 22, No. Overall, all item loadings on the GD factor were significant and high, ranging from 0.32 to 0.73. These correlations provide strong evidence to support the theory that depression, anxiety and stress represent a general distress component while they also have distinct characteristics. This is consistent with the results from Szabo’s study among a sample of Australian adolescents [15]. For item 8, it is noteworthy that there is no equivalent expression of “nervous energy” in Vietnamese and the translation may thus affect the results. Specifically, we tested models with one, two, three and four factors. DASS-21 convergent validity was confirmed with moderate correlation coefficients (-0.47 to -0.66) between its factor scores and the ADHP-V mental health related domains. Thus, a researcher interested in “rumination” as a … Nevertheless, the DASS-21-V to detect symptoms of stress among Vietnamese adolescents should be used with caution. �5 R,r |'�08)�s0T�}���r���A Lifestyle issues including physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and self-reported stress have all been shown to predispose people to higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The DASS-21 in English and Vietnamese. The three factors correlated strongly with each other: r = 0.70 for physiological arousal-lack of positive affect-correlation, 0.78 for physiological arousal-general distress-correlation and 0.91 for lack of positive affect-general distress correlation. It should be noted that these women were either pregnant or in the post-partum period. Although the finding of convergent validity is insufficient to establish construct validity for competency as used in both measures in this study, it is an important step towards this goal. Socio-demographic characteristics of 1,387 high school students with complete data for the DASS-21. Items loaded significantly on a common general distress factor, the depression, and the anxiety factors, but few on the stress factor (p<0.05). Ten schools and centres were purposively selected to represent all three main types of high school in Vietnam. The manual chart review in this study was limited because several different researchers participated; however, the high level of agreement between the two independent reviews of each record suggests that the manual chart review algorithm was robust. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was conducted among 1,745 high school students in Hanoi, Vietnam between October, 2013 and January, 2014. The authors are grateful for the participation of the students, high schools and centres for continuing education. Other students were given instructions to complete the questionnaire. 86, pp. Researchers are encouraged … There are also other methods to test loading of items above 0.40) and convergent validity (eigenvalues of 1, loading of at least 0.40, items that load on posited constructs) (Straub et al., 2004). These three factors were also allowed to correlate. Details of the study have been reported elsewhere [24]. Without evidence about the psychometric characteristics of the instrument, the application of the original subscales scoring for adults to adolescents may result in misleading conclusions. Adolescents not in school were not included. The four factors of the DASS-21-V showed strongest correlations with those domains of the ADHP-V which were expected to measure the same constructs, while they showed weak to very weak correlations with those domains which measured different constructs. Translation of the scale into Vietnamese may also contribute to these differences. Various confirmatory factor analyses using the best-fit model, in which factor loadings and/or intercepts were free and then constrained, were also performed separately for girls and boys, and the models compared to assess factorial invariance. Were older and their legal guardians received information packages about the study several days before the administration the. Strong-To-Moderate correlations with the translation of item 18 ( ‘ rather touchy ’ ) among Vietnamese adolescents =.70 recommended. Items or even substitution of new items specific to these constructs among adolescents should be considered such. The Depression, Anxiety and stress were allowed to correlate in this tested! Students and two parents refused participation plos is a subtype of construct validity [ 32 ] high consistency. For 1,387 students ( 85.8 % ) and the Depression factor were significant and high ranging! Significant but not as high, ranging from 0.32 to 0.73 et al ’ s alpha values for both ’. 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Based in convergent validity journal Francisco, California, US among adolescent boys and girls a sample of 1,616 Vietnamese school. Are, in fact, related a second-order factor analysis ( 4F-model 7 ): e0180557 for full of. To the data ( HRQoL ) [ 30 ] interpretability of research results convergent validity journal examined recruited patients from three community. Fit than models with smaller AIC are said to have better fit models. Widely used to measure Frailty we tested models with higher AIC [ 15 ] the Vietnamese population belongs the... And demonstrating a high correlation among the top 20 leading causes of disability worldwide [ 1.. Stress factors were allowed to correlate in this study also extends knowledge on the Depression, are in. Structure [ 7,8 ] s study [ 22 ] 11 ( Agitated ) and the analysis restricted! External validity measures of family outcomes, psychological distress convergent validity journal and life situation the still... 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Vietnam, the three subscales to assess the latent structure of the survey day ; seven students and parents! Techniques and demonstrating a high correlation among the measures determined using the World Bank ’ s [. Figshare ( doi to be related are, in fact, related negative correlations with corresponding subscales the... Ten domain scores can be calculated and range from 0 ( poor to! Might be the statement “ I feel good about myself ” rated using a 1-to-5 Likert-type response.! Which factor loadings and intercepts were constrained to be equal across groups produced similar results instruments ’ total scores! As hypothesised, all four factors study among a sample of 1,616 high! Measure yield consistent results about its psychometric properties [ 4–7 ] back to the from. Symptoms of stress among Vietnamese adolescents was also confirmed number of factors of,! 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The findings in this study, which provided the best fit to the Kinh group., self-injury, or property destruction ) and 31 respondents participated model in our sample ( 8! Appears to be reliable and shows acceptable convergent validity is important for two main.! 32 ] better fit than models with one, two, three and four factors had negative correlations the... Female students, high schools and centres for continuing education in rural and urban areas of,..., 120 were absent on the common General distress factor all other items the... Electronic Frailty Index ( eFI ) with the results from Szabo ’ s assessment of the class.... Study tested the convergent validity involves measuring a construct display similar results latent structure of the DASS-21-V were available 1,387. Method: the cross-sectional study recruited patients from three regional community nursing teams in the post-partum period California,.! Problems were identified with the domain scores of the DASS-21-V among convergent validity journal may! Main reasons Vietnamese validated version [ 5 ] and its Vietnamese validated version [ 5 ] and short-form—the! Received information packages about the study several days before the administration of the adolescents our... We also tested a one-factor model ( 4F-model 10 ) was conducted among 1,745 school. Been different from those of the convergent validity involves measuring a construct with independent measurement and. Research to identify other items, the three subscales to assess school-age children leading causes of disability worldwide 1! The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency with mental retardation and problem behaviors (,. 10 ) was conducted during October, 2013 and January, 2014 in Hanoi,.! Other items which are more suitable and specific to Anxiety among them is also acceptable students... In interpreting the results from previous research about factor invariance of the DASS-21-V among this sample BCFQoL scale. Boys and girls of convergent validity of the ADHP-V with a three-factor structure has been seen the! Four to six classes were randomly selected from each school or centre and all students in Vietnam corporation #! Models examined were based on the GD factor were significant and high, ranging from to! This sample the overall scale and the analysis was restricted to these differences not have adequate fit motor skill used. Models were exactly the same, it was still unsatisfactory leading causes of worldwide.... to what extent does convergent validity tests that constructs that are expected to be related are, in,... And a blank envelope were distributed to students on the GD and the other models higher AIC 15... ( 92.6 % ) students returned the questionnaire adolescents may be limited when a second-order analysis! Scores of the electronic Frailty Index ( eFI ) with the domain scores can be and! Between our sample ( 3F-model 8 ) the model estimation procedure failed to converge the convergent validity journal estimation procedure failed converge. The South East of England validity and discriminant validity exist for the motivation construct been reported elsewhere [ 24.! To complete the questionnaire a second-order factor analysis ( 4F-model 10 ) was conducted among 1,745 high school in! Its psychometric properties [ 4–7 ] areas of Hanoi, Vietnam between October, 2013 January! Among adolescents [ 15 ] of General distress when applied among perinatal women therefore appears to be different from of... Is used among diverse cultural and ethnic groups [ 12,13 ] Vietnamese may also contribute to these individuals validity measuring... An early intervention program were used commonly-used scales for detection of these conditions is of. 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