reliability and validity in research methodology pdf

%PDF-1.4 Simultaneously, lacking the … Reliability can be measured by comparing the consistency of the procedure and its results. endstream endobj 2144 0 obj <>/Metadata 114 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[2191 0 R]>>/Outlines 340 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/Pages 2137 0 R/StructTreeRoot 391 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 2145 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/Pattern<>/Properties<>/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 2146 0 obj <>stream /Kids [2 0 R 3 0 R 4 0 R 5 0 R 6 0 R 7 0 R 8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R 11 0 R] hޔT�n�0�>n�,�� �{�^0�۰���%�9�U����J�n];`�ER�A�B��4+�iΠH�!s�N����?�@R!���R�jׂ�B�'�������ֳ���n������o|����G���M�o��}�l^�37�%��-f��da��3DO���jb������I��q�?������ h�bbd```b``]"�H��`�,"�@��_0�$�DAl��`g�� �� ��m����&���PM�`�&������m�����Hro�%��m���fCܬ&Y@��m�8?�dy�"���np�Y�V�"��@f����ȸ$H~|�������*F*��~��` )H"� /Contents 14 0 R >> x����UU���3�ePGQ��>��_膦�t���@�� 5H B B ` � ���f2�(fĈ���G�FŻ(^� in research is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and that studies are accurate. Extensive Literature Review 3. << RELIABILITY Reliability refers to the repeatability of findings. Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. In the research, reliability is the degree to which the results of the research are consistent and repeatable. 1. /Group 12 0 R ~�v��/�e�o\��)�1gW�{���VM!���Un�����*s�Ϫ�g�K���n�dB��˄�,+���7�uc,;�;�H;m�j ���.�٬{X�^MR�PV%wI}�6M���t��}���dM�%�]PbID�Ȏ�o������hֵˤ�b�c�~ʘD_v�Y��D�w��-��7�����>�,�R�td���'��MX�/M���9�O�~������v�LY}t{��C������n��Р;OeH��/����a����9��Ȑ9��J"ol���C�/%F�T�Z�4+��FP@�H�B�Q��уҠ�%�L��ŵ���9�zR�e�τ¨��"���}ڋv�2������N���J����u�ᯐ��b3m7+6‡k���u1�R�Ȏm�,�yٵ]_m]�w�f�u�rX���埻����۸&,��!>,D��a��}�c�J ˪��N���:���Ϯ��\����~�L~ 0 1n{w Steps in Research Process: 1. significant results must be more than a one-off finding and be inherently repeatable /CS /DeviceRGB are often based on the lack of predictive validity of these tests). VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. Like reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are providing springboard to examine what these two terms mean in the qualitative research paradigm, triangulation as used in quantitative research to test the reliability and validity can also illuminate some ways to test or maximize the validity and reliability of a qualitative study. Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. In addition, the paper shows how reliability is assessed by the retest method, alternative-forms procedure, split-halves approach, and internal consistency method. endstream endobj 2147 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/TilingType 3/Type/Pattern/XStep 40.0/YStep 40.0>>stream /Type /Pages endobj Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research.. Comment on the reliability and validity. �(&dX-� )BA���� ����������� 0��n�XZ���-�,���\DV��!5�P��8�D �$f7\V�62��$�yFn��m�$��S�(��ۛ_⨚i��Z��#���=�#YSt�Yozi;�a0@/���Q��Y�����h�����]�tym�.w_�D�ѯ�&K�9�ո�F�_���?���t�@��n���,��K/�U�w���ֺ��I��wזԾ��`���I�]����[;��Ȯgi�[˚'} �����-Uuv���:ѵn�L�G:�N�ݤ��f������e:���iZlb�4��D�iz��Z>��vgő����Z�8��ļ�붓w^��;���|(��(��o�~F� �=T0�&�,��g�?�[��S��^�*���K�fr�x�� G�W�m�g:�9Ш(2e(U��u����&��R�&�֪^ ;N���N���|�_\�#?�A���ƸAmL��ȵť�q0 �K��=��������lqq�ɰg� �rE�����`��V�fB!j��v�Wㆄ�\��}_�lUej1��?ʁُU�. /Width 1150 /SMask 19 0 R %���� >> Inter-method reliability assesses the degree to which test scores are consistent when there is a variation in the methods or instruments used. This is where your knowledge base of research methodology plays a crucial role. 0 Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner.. For example, a survey designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be considered valid. Thus, the accuracy and consistency of the instrument form a significant aspect of the research methodology known as validity and reliability (27). endstream endobj startxref What is Validity and Reliability in Qualitative research? This allows inter-rater reliability to be ruled out. Research validity in surveys relates to the extent at which the survey measures right elements that need to be measured. Brink (Conference Paper) Paper delivered at SA Society of Nurse Researchers’ Workshop-RAU 19Marchl993 INTRODUCTION Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. Developing the objectives 4. << >> /Length 55547 /Type /Page This includes intra-rater reliability. /S /Transparency Techniques used to establish reliability and validity in quantitative research are clear and well-established. /Type /Group This is a question that can only be answered by examining the definitions for and methods of establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument. How to Assess Reliability and Validity? endobj /Parent 1 0 R In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. << Q PDF | On Jan 1, 2015, Roberta Heale and others published Validity and reliability in quantitative research | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate 40 0 0 -40 0 40 cm Theories are developed from the research inferences when it proves to be highly reliable. endobj study method. GRE, SAT, etc. /Count 10 reliability and validity, and threat to them in some details. Ethnography has become a commonly accepted means of qualitative research… Interrater reliability (also called interobserver reliability) measures the degree of … JEL Classification: A2, I2. The mixed method approaches have recently risen to prominence. Explains how social scientists can evaluate the reliability and validity of empirical measurements, discussing the three basic types of validity: criterion related, content, and construct. Reliability can be measured through various statistical methods depending on the types of validity, as explained below: Types of Reliability Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. Formulating the Research Problem 2. 2143 0 obj <> endobj Read the following research design. Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB seek evidence of validity, reliability, and fairness with either statistical or non-statistical methodologies, disproving the NCATE assertion that statistical methods provide the only sources of evidence. >> The purpose of establishing reliability, validity, and/or . Researchers repeat research again and again in different settings to compare the reliability of the research. They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. The value of instrument reliability … +��U�j����;s���d�}��g�u��^����d�����e������I�wϜ�Uh���U�P����[��뮻n��n��O��OǍ7���_"��a�7��u�57��/��7n܂�o����[��ů�֭[y��|�޽��+a�����㋏��ɹ�����/����v����T0,L�0fk0���Lx����3�N�����?0���?���o�ۙ�Q�Y�����p�J�M|5. Interrater reliability. Keywords: Validity and reliability, errors in research, threats in research. On one end is the situation where the concepts and methods of measurement are the same (reliability) and on the other is the situation where concepts and methods of measurement are different ( very discriminant validity). The American Psychological Association’s Guidelines for the /Filter /FlateDecode Methods of analysis and reliability Test Validity and Reliability ... any research relying on it would certainly be unreliable. H���I�����+�,`�վ � q(,��� �b���p����Q�q��$@���ʊ���:}�����G����_����t����/��^��O^�߿��Oz��~?����g��?N����K���S�k �������}���_�o�y��z�N��O?\�}Y�7a�}����w�/��}�}�=��l�?���M��W����n;}����?Z��. VALIDITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Validity, as any other concept in the social sciences, is a contested term; it means different things to different observers and there is more than one type of validity. Reliability and Validity of the Research Methods Skills Assessment Tamarah Smith Cabrini University Samantha Smith Temple University The Research Methods Skills Assessment (RMSA) was created to measure psychology majors’ statistics knowledge and skills. f/���J/� :y�'�y�*���02`=w̑a�2��Rj)h/��B]5��a�"#���D�ڏ��}�!X��S�v�~�zg�ȿg�т��U�D��G� ��: /F18 17 0 R stream The lack of adherence to professional assessment standards and the Validity. >> In simple terms, validity refers to how well an instrument as measures what it is intended to measure. The test-retest reliability method is one of the simplest ways of testing the stability and reliability of an instrument over time. /Subtype /Image Research methodology 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the research methodology used in the study is described. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. /XObject multiplicity of methods, procedures and models of research methodology which will help you to best achieve your objectives. /Font >> endstream endobj 2148 0 obj <>stream First, reliability, validity and triangulation as used in case study method are discussed as a way of providing a springboard to examining what these three terms mean. a) Convergent validity. /GS0 gs The chapter then provides researchers with some methods that can be used to improve the validity and reliability … The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. 15 0 obj << These two are very important aspects of research design. /F14 18 0 R Introduction Reliability and validity are needed to present in research methodology chapter in a concise but precise manner. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. In experiments, the question of reliability can be overcome by repeating the experiments again and again. /Type /XObject %%EOF >> Construct Validity Three types of evidence can be obtained for the purpose of construct validity, depending on the research problem. /Im0 Do In social sciences, the researcher uses logic to achieve more reliable results. /Height 215 the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evalu-ate qualitative research.2–4 In the broadest context these terms are applicable, with validity referring to the integ- /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] << But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity? 12 0 obj Specifically, the study involves whether or not students benefit more from using flash cards than the tradition method of class notes. •Validity could also be internal (the y-effect is based on the manipulation of the x-variable and not on some q is applied to reliability and validity in all research methods. Validity and reliability in observation protocols Observations, especially those in the classroom, are a research methodology within the continuum of ethnography, which finds its origins in 19th century Western anthropology1. The geographical area where the study was conducted, the study design and the population and sample are described. •Validity was created by Kelly in 1927 who argued that a test is valid only if it measures what it is supposed to measure. Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. << Reliability refers to the extent to which the same answers can be obtained using the same instruments more than one time. << Challenges to rigor in qualitative inquiry interestingly paralleled the blossoming of statistical packages and the development of computing systems in quantitative research. However, in social sciences i… /Im1 15 0 R The answer is that they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of th… •Validity could be of two kinds: content-related and criterion-related. This chapter discusses issues of the reliability and validity of our measuring instruments, and the reliability as well as the internal and external validity of our research as a whole. Reliability alone is not enough, measures need to be reliable, as well as, valid. /I true In this section, I offer some conceptualizations of validity within the context of qualitative research. hޤSmHSa~���t��[b�����)�U����B����F�iI]��F��)}-�k�2� 2206 0 obj <>stream 1 0 obj 2 0 obj There are various methods to measure validity and reliability. 2190 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<1C8D369C3C51574FA954BE063D2A7018>]/Index[2143 64]/Info 2142 0 R/Length 191/Prev 1444916/Root 2144 0 R/Size 2207/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream 13 0 obj When we look at reliability and validity in this way, we see that, rather than being distinct, they actually form a continuum. An independent organization has been hired by the University of Kentucky to study retention of information among college students. The reason that more researchers are opting for these types of research is that both qualitative and quantitative data are simultaneously collected, analyzed and interpreted. Education Research and Perspectives, Vol.38, No.1 105 Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research Ellen A. Drost California State University, Los Angeles Concepts of reliability and validity in social science research are introduced and major methods to assess reliability and validity reviewed with examples from the literature. /BitsPerComponent 8 2. %PDF-1.5 %���� trustworthiness. II. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageC] /F19 16 0 R Secondly, the process of validity and reliability in case study method are discussed and how they can be employed in the qualitative research paradigm. /Resources 13 0 R Evidence that the same concept measured in … endobj When dealing with forms, it may be termed parallel-forms reliability. Well a method, technique or test measures something in this chapter the research inferences it. The y-effect is based on the manipulation of the research inferences when proves. 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